Understanding the Causes, Consequences, and Prevention of Suicides

Suicide is caused by various reasons one of the factor causing suicidal ideations and behaviours is mental health. Depression is the leading cause of suicidal ideation and behaviours. Depression can co-occur with other mental health disorders such as OCD, PTSD, GAD, ADHD, etc which can cause the suicidal tendencies. PHQ 9 and Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire can be used as a screening tool but not as a diagnostic tool. Diagnosis can be only done by a licensed clinical psychologist or a psychiatrist. The clients can be referred to a clinical psychologist with the screening assessment report and  a small case study done by a counselor or a psychologist.
Different Cause of Suicide

  • Bullying, prejudice or stigma, such as relating to your race, gender, disability or sexual identity
  • Different types of abuse, including domestic, sexual or physical abuse
  • Bereavement, including losing a loved one to suicide
  • The end of a relationship
  • Long-term physical pain or illness
  • Adjusting to a big change, such as retirement or redundancy
  • Financial problems 
  • Housing problems, including homelessness
  • Isolation or loneliness
  • Being in prison
  • Feeling inadequate or a failure
  • Addiction or substance abuse
  • Pregnancy, childbirth or postnatal depression
  • Doubts about your sexual or gender identity
  • Cultural pressure, such as forced marriage
  • Society’s expectations, for example to act a certain way or achieve certain things
  • Other forms of trauma

Types of Suicide

Egoistic Suicide

The individual considers themselves as a loner or an outcast and feels like an alien on earth. They don’t take much effort to socially integrate themselves and decline when others offer to spend time with them. The reason for such social withdrawal or isolation behavior could stem from different reasons such as past experiences, low self-esteem & confidence, or death of a loved one. 

Example:. Betty is unmarried, has no children, and goes to work but doesn’t mingle with anyone. Even for work parties or leisure hangouts she avoids. She feels like she has nobody who cares or loves her, Betty decides to die by suicide.

Altruistic suicide 

When an individual is devoted to a cult or group or religion their involvement is exorbitant. They will be willing to sacrifice their own life to do anything for the group that they belong to.

Example: The Jim Jones cult in which around 1000 people committed suicide on the command of their cult leader. 

Anomic Suicide

In situations when the social standard fails to fulfill and regulate the requirement of people who trust them results in directionlessness and purposelessness which could lead to taking their life for feeling dejected. This type of suicide is more associated with the Governemnt and economic factors.

Examples: a person with sudden financial loss or his financial market collapses leaving him in a debt then the person could think suicide is the easy way out. 

In the USA from 1928 to 1932 the suicide rates were high because of the unemployment rates were nearly 24%. On the other hand, suicide rates were at low in the year 2000 when the unemployment rate was about 4%. 

Fatalistic Suicide

An individual who is under a difficult regulation such as governments, schools, families where the rules and regulations are strict and have higher expectations set on the individual which leads them to lack self-differentiation and no individuality that can affect the way they perceive their life, others, and the world. 

Example: Parents who set higher goals and place higher expectations on their children without understanding the child’s need and potential. In such cases the child feels overwhelmed and pressured. They think the only way out is to end their life stating ” I am tired” 

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